Birnessite, a New Manganese Oxide Mineral from Aberdeenshire, Scotland

L. H. P. Jones1 and Angela A. Milne2
Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization
1Division of Plant Industry, c/o School of Agriculture, University of Melbourne, Victoria.
2Division of Building Research, Highett, Victoria; formerly of the Macaulay Institute for Soil Research, Aberdeen.

Summary: A manganese pan near Birness contains grains of an optically uniaxial negative mineral near (Na0·7Ca0·3)Mn7O14·2·8H2O, giving an X-ray powder pattern similar to that of synthetic materials described as ‘manganous manganite’ and δ-MnO2. Material giving a similar pattern has been described from a natural occurrence in Canada, but no mineral name was assigned; the name birnessite is now proposed. The mineral is probably formed by air-oxidation of manganous oxides under alkaline conditions.

Mineralogical Magazine; December 1956 v. 31; no. 235; p. 283-288; DOI: 10.1180/minmag.1956.031.235.01
© 1956, The Mineralogical Society
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