Summary: Olivine composition can be rapidly and accurately obtained by using standard (Straumanis-mounting) 57·3 mm X-ray powder cameras. A determinative curve based on analysed natural olivines has been constructed by plotting the mol. % Fo against the spacing of back-reflection line 174. The regression equation for the composition range Fo100 to Fo30 is
Fo (mol. %) = 4151·46−3976·45 d174
using Fe-Kα1 radiation. The fayalite end (Fo30 to Fo0) of the determinative curve shows a relatively sharp break from a straight-line relationship of d-spacing versus composition. Practical applications of the determinative curve are briefly presented.