Summary: The manganese ores of Elba, South-eastern Desert, occur as numerous veins located within a narrow belt trending N.W.-S.E. Three ore-types were distinguished: hard crystalline ore consisting mainly of pyrolusite or ramsdellite or both, banded colloform ore consisting mainly of psilomelane, and in places cryptomelane, and soft nodular ore consisting of todorokite with minor amounts of psilomelane (or cryptomelane), nsutite, and pyrolusite. Black calcite and baryte occur in some of the veins and increase with depth.
Based on the field and mineralogical evidence the origin of the ore is discussed. It is suggested that the ore is a very low-temperature epithermal fissure deposit of black calcite type that occurs near the surface (oxidation zone) in brecciated zones along faults.