Topaz Occurrence in Mardan, North-West Pakistan

M. Qasim Jan
Department of Geology, University of Peshawar, Pakistan

Synopsis: Colourless, purple, and pink topaz and transparent quartz crystals have been found in calcite veins (with or without milky quartz) in calcareous rocks near Katlang (34° 24′ N, 72° 6′ E), Mardan district. The veins do not contain any fluorite nor the country rocks any topaz. The topaz and transparent quartz crystals are mostly broken and perfectly euhedral outlines are very rare. Refractive indices, 2V, specific gravity, and the fluorine (determined) and H2O + (calculated) contents of two topaz crystals are suggestive of their high 100 OH/(OH+F) ratios (> 25). Rather than being derived, the topaz may have formed in situ by hydrothermal/pneumatolytic activity, followed by tectonic movements that fractured the crystals and resulted in their incorporation in later-formed vein calcite.

Mineralogical Magazine; March 1979 v. 43; no. 325; p. 175-176; DOI: 10.1180/minmag.1979.043.325.20
© 1979, The Mineralogical Society
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