Summary: Grandidierite has been identified in two aluminous metasedimentary xenoliths from quartz-latitic volcanic rocks from Mt. Amiata and Mt. Cimino, central Italy. Physical and electron microprobe data for the grandidierites and petrological data for the grandidierite-bearing xenoliths are presented. The grandidierites formed by a reaction involving pre-existing aluminium rich minerals, possibly at temperatures of at least 800 °C and at low pressures. The grandidierite from Mt. Amiata replaces sillimanite. Several common characteristics can be demonstrated for magmatic and metamorphic grandi-dierite-bearing rocks. It is suggested that metamorphic rocks in which grandidierite occurs have often undergone partial melting.