Volatile Flux, Geotherms, and the Generation of the Kimberlite-Carbonatite-Alkaline Magma Spectrum

D. K. Bailey
Department of Geology, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, RG6 2AB

Summary: A comparison of shield geotherms with the experimentally determined vapour-present solidus for kimberlite, indicates conditions of grazing incidence between 150–200 km, precisely where the mineral geotherms become disturbed. This relationship permits a new interpretation of kimberlite activity, by which volatiles migrating through cratonic lithosphere cause first metasomatism, and then incipient melting in the zone of incidence. Production of localized pockets of near-solidus liquid, erupted by accelerating crack propagation through the overlying lithosphere, is consistent with the unique set of features that characterize kimberlite. Volatile fluxing along steeper geotherms (away from craton nucleii) produces entirely different modes of magma eruption and development, by which highly under-saturated alkalic melts can reach the surface as liquids. Kimberlite activity is thus revealed as the limiting case of cratonic magmatism.

Mineralogical Magazine; June 1980 v. 43; no. 330; p. 695-699; DOI: 10.1180/minmag.1980.043.330.02
© 1980, The Mineralogical Society
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