Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Plate Tectonic Setting of a Late Cretaceous Sn-W Granite from Sumatra, Indonesia

M. C. G. Clarke and B. Beddoe-Stephens
Overseas Directorate, British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG, England
Geochemistry Directorate, British Geological Survey, Murchison House, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3LA, Scotland

Abstract: The Hatapang granite was discovered during geological mapping and mineral exploration in northern Sumatra by the British Geological Survey in conjunction with the Indonesian Directorate of Mineral Resources. The pluton comprises a two-mica granite which shows significant greisenization and veining around its margins associated with Sn and W mineralization. An Rb-Sr isochron derived for the pluton indicates an age of 80 Ma and an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7151. This together with major and trace element data show the Hatapang to be of clear S-type affinity.

The greisens are quartz-mica-topaz rocks and are almost totally deficient in Na. Trioctahedral mica compositions progress from biotite through siderophyllite to zinnwaldite during final differentiation and greisenization of the granite. Accompanying dioctahedral micas are phengitic. Associated with late-stage differentiation of the granite is the precipitation of tourmaline and various Nb-Ta oxides. Sn and W mineralization is manifested as cassiterite in the greisens, while wolframite tends to be related to quartz veining. A later and lower temperature sulphide event produced a suite of base metal sulphides and Ag-Bi-Pb sulphosalts. The identification of a Sn-W granite of Cretaceous age in northern Sumatra provides a link with occurrences of economically important Late Cretaceous Sn-W granites in Thailand and Burma and increases the potential of an area which until recently was thought to lie outside the SE Asian tin belt.

Keywords: granite • tin • tungsten • geochemistry • mineralogy • plate tectonics • Sumatra

Mineralogical Magazine; September 1987 v. 51; no. 361; p. 371-387; DOI: 10.1180/minmag.1987.051.361.04
© 1987, The Mineralogical Society
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