Abstract: Carbonates of the magnesite-siderite series have been found and analysed in carbonatites from the Lueshe, Newania, Kangankunde, and Chipman Lake complexes. This series has been represented until now only by a few X-ray identifications of magnesite and three published analyses of siderite and breunnerite (magnesian siderite). Most of the siderite identified in carbonatites in the past has proved to be ankerite, but the new data define the complete solid-solution series from magnesite to siderite. They occur together with dolomite and ankerite and in one rock with calcite. The magnesites, ferroan magnesites and some magnesian siderites may be metasomatic/hydrothermal in origin but magnesian siderite from Chipman Lake appears to have crystallized in the two-phase calcite + siderite field in the subsolidus CaCO3-MgCO3-FeCO3 system. Textural evidence in Newania carbonatites indicates that ferroan magnesite, which co-exists with ankerite, is a primary liquidus phase and it is proposed that the Newania carbonatite evolved directly from a Ca-poor, Mg-rich carbonatitic liquid generated by partial melting of phlogopite-carbonate peridotite in the mantle at pressures >32 kbar.