Abstract: The Penouta deposit is associated with a small Hercynian apogranite stock that intrudes Precambrian-Cambrian gneisses of the Ollo de Sapo Formation. Tin ore occurs as disseminations of cassiterite in the apogranite and as greisenized zones and quartz veins which traverse both the alkaline leucogranite and the surrounding metamorphic country rocks.
A fluid-inclusion study, utilizing microthermometric, crushing tests and Raman spectroscopic techniques on quartz from an intragranitic vein and a greisen of the host rock, indicates that the evolution of fluids was similar in both samples and occurred in the three main stages: The first stage is characterized by complex CO2 (CO2-N2-CH4-H2S) and complex CO2 aqueous (H2O-NaCl-CO2-N2-CH4-H2S) fluids of low salinity (Tm ice > −6 °C), homogenization temperatures between 250 and 410 °C homogenization pressures below 900 bars, and thermobarometric trapping conditions with temperatures below 700 °C and pressures below 3250 bars. These fluids were probably responsible for the greisenization of the apogranite and wall rocks, and the precipitation of cassiterite. The second stage is represented by low-salinity aqueous solutions (H2O-NaCl) with Tm ice ⩾ −4.5 °C, trapped at homogenization temperatures between 110 and 300 °C and homogenization pressures below 100 bars. This stage can be correlated with kaolinization. The third stage is characterized by higher salinity aqueous fluids (Tm ice ⩾ −16.5 °C) containing Na+ and other cations, trapped at homogenization temperatures between 100 and 130 °C and homogenization pressures below 5 bars. These fluids can be associated with the epigenetic or supergene phases of the orebody.