Abstract: The amygdaloidal carbonatite lavas at Qasiarsuk have a primary phenocryst assemblage of calcite, fluor-apatite and magnetite set in a groundmass of calcite, apatite and iron oxides, and minor dolomite. Cathodoluminescence reveals a complex history, both for the major minerals which show zonal growth, and for important Nb and REE accessory phases which include pyrochlore and perovskite. The REE reside in fluor/hydrous-carbonates included exclusively in apatite. These REE minerals are similar to synthetic phases from hydrothermal experiments, but probably crystallised in equilibrium with a late-stage volatile-rich carbonate melt. Apart from low-temperature alteration, the rocks have been little disturbed since their extrusion during the earliest phase of development of the Gardar Alkaline Igneous Province.