A Numerical Approach for the Formation of Chlorite and Sulphide-Bearing Greisen: A Study Based on the Navalcubilla System (Spanish Central System)

Fernando Tornos
Instituto Tecnológico GeoMinero de España, c/Rios Rosas, 23 28003 Madrid, Spain

Abstract: The formation of sulphide and cassiterite-bearing chlorite-rich greisens in the Navalcubilla granite has been modelled theoretically. Numerical simulation on the reaction of a hydrothermal fluid with a granitic rock predicts assemblages very similar to those found in nature, with progressive formation of muscovite, quartz, chlorite, microcline and plagioclase zones. The hydrothermal alteration of the rock produces a neutralization of the inflowing acid fluid, a drop in the fS2 and, to a lesser degree, an increment in fO2. During hydrothermal alteration, fS2 and fO2 change abruptly between metasomatic zones, but chlorite seems to control their major changes. Scheelite and cassiterite are concentrated in the internal zones, while sulphides are related to the more external zones. Fluid-rock reactions seem to be very effective for precipitating cassiterite and scheelite, even from very Sn and W-poor fluids. Appreciable amounts of sulphides are only expected in systems with high concentrations of base metals. Boiling and simple cooling of the fluids acidifies and oxidizes them but chemical changes are not strong enough to induce significant precipitation of ore minerals, at least when the temperature changes are small. Continued circulation of fluids along fractures with previously precipitated quartz + wolframite produces replacement of wolframite by scheelite and sulphides.

Keywords: greisen • fluid-rock reactions • scheelite • cassiterite • Spanish Central System

Mineralogical Magazine; October 1997 v. 61; no. 408; p. 639-654; DOI: 10.1180/minmag.1997.061.408.03
© 1997, The Mineralogical Society
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