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EMU Notes in Mineralogy - volume 12

Applications of Raman spectroscopy to Earth sciences and cultural heritage
(J. Dubessy, M.-C. Caumon and F. Rull, editors)  

Chapter 7: The hydrothermal diamond anvil cell (HDAC) for Raman spectroscopic studies of geological fluids at high pressures and temperatures
Christian Schmidt and I-Ming Chou

In this chapter, we describe the hydrothermal diamond-anvil cell (HDAC), which is specifically designed for experiments on systems with aqueous fluids to temperatures up to ~1000ºC and pressures up to a few GPa to tens of GPa. This cell permits optical observation of the sample and the in situ determination of properties by ‘photon-in photon-out’ techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. Several methods for pressure measurement are discussed in detail including the Raman spectroscopic pressure sensors a-quartz, berlinite, zircon, cubic boron nitride (c-BN), and 13C-diamond, the fluorescence sensors ruby (α-Al2O3:Cr3+), Sm:YAG (Y3Al5O12:Sm3+) and SrB4O7:Sm2+, and  measurements of phase-transition temperatures. Furthermore, we give an overview of published Raman spectroscopic studies of geological fluids to high pressures and temperatures, in which diamond anvil cells were applied.

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